The big bang and stellar evolution

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The big bang and stellar evolution

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The big bang and stellar evolution

Look about you. There are clouds, seas, and
mountains, grass carpets, the plains; and birds sing
in the trees. Farm animals graze in the meadows, and
water brooks run through the fields. In city and country,
people use their astounding minds to plan and produce
intricate things. At night the stars come out, and overhead
are billions of stars in our galaxy. Beyond them are 100
billion island universes, each with 100 billion stars.
Yet all of these things are made of matter and energy.
Where did it all come from? How did everything
begin—all the wonderful things of life and nature?
Evolutionary scientists tell us that it all came from
nothing. Yes, nothing.
That is what is being taught to your friends, children,
68 The Evolution Cruncher
and loved ones. You need to know the facts.
In this chapter we shall briefly view what evolutionary
scientists teach about the origin of matter, stars,
galaxies, and planets;—and we will give you basic scientific
reasons why their cosmological theories are incorrect.
(Cosmology is the word used for theories about
the origin of matter and stellar objects.)
1 - THE BIG BANG THEORY
The Big Bang theory has been accepted by a majority of
scientists today. It theorizes that a large quantity of nothing
decided to pack tightly together,—and then explode
outward into hydrogen and helium. This gas is said to
have flowed outward through frictionless space (“frictionless,”
so the outflowing gas cannot stop or slow
down) to eventually form stars, galaxies, planets, and
moons. It all sounds so simple, just as you would find in a
science fiction novel. And that is all it is.
WHAT IT IS ALL ABOUT
The originators—*George Lemaitre, a Belgium,
struck on the basic idea in 1927; and *George Gamow,
*R.A. Alpher, and *R. Herman devised the basic Big Bang
model in 1948. But it was *Gamow, a well-known scientist
and science fiction writer, that gave it its present name
and then popularized it (*Isaac Asimov, Asimov’s New
Guide to Science, 1984, p. 43). Campaigning for the idea
enthusiastically, he was able to convince many other scientists.
He used quaint little cartoons to emphasize the details.
The cartoons really helped sell the theory.
The theory—According to this theory, in the beginning,
there was no matter, just nothingness. Then this
nothingness condensed by gravity into a single, tiny
spot; and it decided to explode!
That explosion produced protons, neutrons, and electrons
which flowed outward at incredible speed throughout
empty space; for there was no other matter in the universe.
Big Bang and Stellar Evolution 69
As these protons, neutrons, and electrons hurled
themselves outward at supersonic speed, they are said
to have formed themselves into typical atomic structures
of mutually orbiting hydrogen and helium atoms.
Gradually, the outward-racing atoms are said to
have begun circling one another, producing gas clouds
which then pushed together into stars.
These first stars only contained lighter elements (hydrogen
and helium). Then all of the stars repeatedly exploded.
It took at least two explosions of each star to produce
our heavier elements. Gamow described it in scientific
terms: In violation of physical law, emptiness fled
from the vacuum of space—and rushed into a superdense
core, that had a density of 1094gm/cm2 and a temperature
in excess of 1039 degrees absolute. That is a lot of density
and heat for a gigantic pile of nothingness! (Especially
when we realize that it is impossible for nothing to get
hot. Although air gets hot, air is matter, not an absence of
it.)
Where did this “superdense core” come from? Gamow
solemnly came up with a scientific answer for this; he said
it came as a result of “the big squeeze,” when the emptiness
made up its mind to crowd together. Then, with true
scientific aplomb, he named this solid core of nothing,
“ylem” (pronounced “ee-lum”). With a name like that,
many people thought this must be a great scientific truth
of some kind. In addition, numbers were provided to add
an additional scientific flair: This remarkable lack-of-anything
was said by Gamow to have a density of 10 to the
145th power g/cc, or one hundred trillion times the density
of water!
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Date d'inscription : 10/03/2012
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